The National Research Council (2000) proposes U.S. leadership for a global transition to bio-based products. Essential components are: (1) individuals who have expertise in the science of biological systems, and (2) enabling tools to make intrinsic (low-cost) genetic changes that tailor economically-important organisms to providing value-added raw materials.  The NRC's report on biobased industrial products points out that the biological sciences "are likely to make the same impact on the formation of new industries in the next century as the physical and chemical sciences have had on industrial development throughout the century now coming to a close".